5 Oxoprolinuria
Aagenaes syndrome
Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome
Aarskog Syndrome
Aase Smith syndrome
Aase Syndrome
ABCD syndrome
Abdallat Davis Farage syndrome
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Abdominal cystic lymphangioma
Abdominal defects
Abdominal musculature absent microphthalmia joint laxity
Abdominal neoplasms
Aberrant subclavian artery
Ablepharon Macrostomia Syndrome
Abnormal systemic venous return
Abruzzo Erickson syndrome
Absence of Gluteal muscle
Absence of tibia with polydactyly
Absent corpus callosum cataract immunodeficiency
Absent T lymphocytes
Acanthocytosis chorea
Acanthosis Nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans muscle cramps acral enlargement
Accessory deep peroneal nerve
Accessory Navicular bone
Accessory pancreas
Achalasia alacrimia syndrome
Achalasia microcephaly
Achalasia, familial esophageal
Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia syndrome
Achard syndrome
Achard Thiers Syndrome
Achard-Thiers syndrome
Achondrogenesis Kozlowski type
Achondrogenesis type 1A
Achondrogenesis type 1B
Achondroplasia Swiss type agammaglobulinemia
Achondroplastic dwarfism
Achromatopsia incomplete, X-linked
Acid maltase deficiency
Acidemia, Isovaleric
Acidemia, Methylmalonic
Acidemia, Propionic
Acitretine antenatal infection
Ackerman syndrome
Acne Rosacea
Acoustic Neuroma
Acoustic schwannomas
Acquired agranulocytosis
Acquired Aplastic Anemia
Acquired hypoprothrombinemia
Acquired ichthyosis
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Acquired prothrombin deficiency
Acquired syphilis
Acral dysostosis dyserythropoiesis
Acral renal mandibular syndrome
Acro coxo mesomelic dysplasia
Acro fronto facio nasal dysostosis
Acrocallosal Syndrome, Schinzel Type
Acrocephalosyndactyly Jackson Weiss type
Acrocephaly pulmonary stenosis mental retardation
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
Acrodysplasia scoliosis
Acrofacial dysostosis ambiguous genitalia
Acrofacial dysostosis atypical postaxial
Acrofacial dysostosis Catania form
Acrofacial dysostosis Preis type
Acrofacial dysostosis Rodriguez type
Acrofacial dysostosis Weyers type
Acrofacial dysostosis, Nager type
Acrofacial dysostosis, Palagonia type
Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa
Acromegaloid changes cutis verticis gyrata corneal
Acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome
Acromegaloid hypertrichosis syndrome
Acromesomelic Dysplasia
Acromesomelic dysplasia Brahimi Bacha type
Acromesomelic dysplasia Campailla Martinelli type
Acromesomelic dysplasia Hunter Thompson type
Acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type
Acromicric Dysplasia
Acroosteolysis dominant type
Acroosteolysis neurogenic
Acroosteolysis osteoporosis skull and mandible changes
Acropectoral syndrome
Acropectorenal field defect
Acropectorovertebral dysplasia
Acropigmentation of Dohi
Acrorenal syndrome recessive
Acrorenoocular syndrome
ACTH Deficiency
ACTH resistance
Actinomycetales infection
Activated protein C resistance
Acutane embryopathy
Acute articular rheumatism
Acute erythroblastic leukemia
Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis
Acute idiopathic polyneuritis
Acute intermittent porphyria
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
Acute monoblastic leukemia
Acute mountain sickness
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 1
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 2
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 3
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 4
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 6
Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 7
Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation
Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation
Acute myelocytic leukemia
Acute myelogenous leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia (generic term)
Acute myeloid leukemia, secondary
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia (generic term)
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Acute renal failure
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute tubular necrosis
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
Adactylia unilateral dominant
Adam complex familial
Adams Nance syndrome
Adams Oliver Syndrome
Addison's Disease
Adducted thumb club foot syndrome
Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
Adducted thumbs Dundar type
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
Adenocarcinoid tumor
Adenocarcinoma of lung
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Adenoma of the adrenal gland
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency
Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency, anemia due to
Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
Adie Syndrome
Adiposis dolorosa aka Dercum's disease
Adolescent benign focal crisis
Adrenal adenoma, familial
Adrenal cancer
Adrenal disorder
Adrenal gland hyperfunction
Adrenal gland hypofunction
Adrenal hyperplasia
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital (General)
Adrenal hypertension
Adrenal hypoplasia
Adrenal hypoplasia congenital, X-linked
Adrenal incidentaloma
Adrenal insufficiency
Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis
Adrenal medulla neoplasm
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Adrenogenital syndrome
Adrenoleukodystrophy, autosomal, neonatal form
Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linked
Adult onset Still's disease
Adult spinal muscular atrophy
Adult syndrome
Afibrinogenemia, Congenital
Agammaglobulinemias, Primary
Aganglionosis, total intestinal
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
Aggressive fibromatosis
Agnathia holoprosencephaly situs inversus
Agnosia, Primary Visual
Agranulocytosis, Acquired
Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria
Agyria-pachygyria type 1
Ahumada-Del Castillo Syndrome
Aicardi Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
AIDS Dementia Complex
AIDS Dysmorphic Syndrome
Akaba Hayasaka syndrome
Akesson syndrome
Aksu Stckhausen syndrome
Al Awadi Teebi Farag syndrome
Al Frayh Facharzt Haque syndrome
Al Gazali Al Talabani syndrome
Al Gazali Aziz Salem syndrome
Al Gazali Donnai Mueller syndrome
Al Gazali Hirschsprung syndrome
Al Gazali Khidr Prem Chandran syndrome
Al Gazali Sabrinathan Nair syndrome
Alagille Syndrome
Alagille-Watson syndrome (AWS)
Alar nasal cartilages coloboma of telecanthus
Albers-Schonberg disease
Albinism deafness syndrome
Albinism immunodeficiency
Albinism ocular late onset sensorineural deafness
Albinism oculocutaneous, Hermansky-Pudlak type
Albinism, minimal pigment type
Albinism, ocular
Albinism, yellow mutant type
Albrecht Schneider Belmont syndrome
Albright like syndrome
Albright Turner Morgani syndrome
Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy
Albright's syndrome
Alcohol antenatal infection
Alcohol fetopathy
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis
Aldolase A deficiency
Aldred syndrome
Aleukemic leukemia cutis
Alexander Disease
Alien hand syndrome
Allain Babin Demarquez syndrome
Allan Herndon Syndrome
Allanson Pantzar McLeod syndrome
Allergic angiitis
Allergic autoimmune thyroiditis
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Allergic encephalomyelitis
Aloi Tomasini Isaia syndrome
Alopecia anosmia deafness hypogonadism syndrome
Alopecia Areata
Alopecia congenita keratosis palmoplantaris
Alopecia contractures dwarfism mental retardation
Alopecia epilepsy oligophrenia syndrome of Moynahan
Alopecia hypogonadism extrapyramidal disorder
Alopecia immunodeficiency
Alopecia macular degeneration growth retardation
Alopecia mental retardation hypogonadism
Alopecia mental retardation syndrome
Alopecia totalis
Alopecia universalis
Alopecia universalis onychodystrophy vitiligo
Alopecia, epilepsy, pyorrhea, mental subnormality
Alpers Disease
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
Alpha-2 deficient collagen disease
Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency
Alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency
Alpha-thalassemia-abnormal morphogenesis
Alport Syndrome
Alport syndrome macrothrombocytopenia
Alport syndrome, dominant type
Alport syndrome, recessive type
Alstrom Syndrome
Alternating hemiplegia
Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood
Aluminium lung
Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia
Alveolar echinococcosis
Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic
Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome
Alzheimer disease, familial
Alzheimer's Disease
Amaurosis congenita of Leber
Amaurosis congenita of Leber, type 1
Amaurosis congenita of Leber, type 2
Amaurosis hypertrichosis
Ambral syndrome
Ambras syndrome
Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
Amelia cleft lip palate hydrocephalus iris coloboma
Amelia facial dysmorphism
Amelia X linked
Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Amelogenesis Imperfecta hypomaturation type
Amelogenesis imperfecta local hypoplastic form
Amelogenesis imperfecta nephrocalcinosis
Ameloonychohypohidrotic syndrome
Amenorrhea, Primary
Amenorrhea-Galactorrhea Syndrome
American trypanosomiasis
Aminopterin antenatal infection
Aminopterin like syndrome without aminopterin
Amniotic Bands
Amoebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica
Amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae
Amoebiasis or Amebiasis
Ampola syndrome
Amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency
Amyloid angiopathy
Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial
Amyloid polyneuropathy, transthyretin related
Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva mental retardation
Amyloidosis, Familial
Amyoplasia mandibulofacial dysostosis
Amyotonia congenita
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Andersen Disease (GSD IV)
Andre syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Partial
Anemia sideroblastic spinocerebellar ataxia
Anemia, Blackfan Diamond
Anemia, Fanconi's
Anemia, Hemolytic, Acquired Autoimmune
Anemia, Hemolytic, Cold Antibody
Anemia, Hemolytic, Warm Antibody
Anemia, Hereditary Nonspherocytic Hemolytic
Anemia, Hereditary Spherocytic Hemolytic
Anemia, Hypoplastic, Congenital
Anemia, Megaloblastic
Anemia, Pernicious
Anemias, Sideroblastic
Anencephaly spina bifida X linked
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva
Aneurysm, intracranial berry
Angel shaped phalangoepiphyseal dysplasia
Angelman Syndrome
Angioedema, Hereditary
Angiofollicular ganglionic hyperplasia
Angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia
Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia
Angiokeratoma mental retardation coarse face
Angioma hereditary neurocutaneous
Angiomatosis encephalotrigeminal
Angiomatosis leptomeningeal capillary - venous
Angiomatosis systemic cystic Seip syndrome
Angiomyomatous Hamartoma
Angioneurotic edema hereditary due to C1 esterase deficiency
Angiosarcoma of the liver
Angiosarcoma of the scalp
Angiotensin renin aldosterone hypertension
Aniridia absent patella
Aniridia ataxia renal agenesis psychomotor retardation
Aniridia Cerebellar Ataxia Mental Deficiency
Aniridia mental retardation syndrome
Aniridia ptosis mental retardation obesity familial
Aniridia renal agenesis psychomotor retardation
Aniridia type 2
Aniridia, sporadic
Ankle defects short stature
Ankyloblepharon ectodermal defects cleft lip palate
Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum cleft palate
Ankyloblepharon filiforme imperforate anus
Ankyloglossia heterochromia clasped thumbs
Ankylosing spondylarthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis with tylosis
Ankylosis of teeth
Annular constricting bands
Annular pancreas
Annuloaortic ectasia
Anonychia ectrodactyly
Anonychia microcephaly
Anonychia onychodystrophy
Anonychia onychodystrophy brachydactyly type B
Anophthalia pulmonary hypoplasia
Anophthalmia cleft lip palate hypothalamic disorder
Anophthalmia cleft palate micrognathia
Anophthalmia esophageal atresia cryptorchidism
Anophthalmia megalocornea cardiopathy skeletal anomalies
Anophthalmia microcephaly hypogonadism
Anophthalmia plus syndrome
Anophthalmia short stature obesity
Anophthalmia Waardenburg syndrome
Anophthalmos with limb anomalies
Anophthalmos, clinical
Anorectal anomalies
Ano-rectal atresia
Anorexia Nervosa
Anotia facial palsy cardiac defect
Ansell Bywaters Elderking syndrome
Anterior horn disease
Anterior pituitary insufficiency, familial
Anti-factor VIII autoimmunization
Antigen-peptide-transporter 2 deficiency
Anti-HLA hyperimmunization
Antihypertensive drugs antenatal infection
Antinolo Nieto Borrego syndrome
Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Anti-plasmin deficiency, congenital
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Antisynthetase syndrome
Antithrombin deficiency, congenital
Antithrombin III Deficiency
Antley Bixler Syndrome
Anton's syndrome
Aorta-pulmonary artery fistula
Aortic aneurysm
Aortic arch anomaly peculiar facies mental retardation
Aortic arch interruption
Aortic arches defect
Aortic coarctation
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection lentiginosis
Aortic supravalvular stenosis
Aortic valve stenosis
Aortic valves stenosis of the child
Aortic window
APECED Syndrome
Apert like polydactyly syndrome
Apert Syndrome
Aphalangia hemivertebrae
Aphalangia syndactyly microcephaly
Aphthous stomatitis
Aplasia cutis autosomal recessive
Aplasia Cutis Congenita
Aplasia cutis congenita dominant
Aplasia cutis congenita epibulbar dermoids
Aplasia cutis congenita intestinal lymphangiectasia
Aplasia cutis congenita of limbs recessive
Aplasia cutis congenita recessive
Aplasia cutis myopia
Aplasia/hypoplasia of pelvis, femur, fibula, and ulna with abnormal digits and nails
Aplastic anemia
Apnea, Infantile
Apnea, Sleep
Apo A-I deficiency
Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
Apraxia manual
Apraxia, Ideomotor
Apraxia, ocular motor, Cogan type
Aqueductal stenosis, X linked
Arachindonic acid, absence of
Arachnodactyly ataxia cataract aminoaciduria mental retardation
Arachnodactyly mental retardation dysmorphism
Arachnoid Cysts
Arakawa'sa syndrome II
Arc syndrome
Aredyld syndrome
Arginase Deficiency
Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency
Argininosuccinic Aciduria
Arhinia choanal atresia microphthalmia
Arnold Stckler Bourne syndrome
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
Arnold-Chiari syndrome
Aromatase deficiency
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Arroyo Garcia Cimadevilla syndrome
Arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial
Arterial calcification of infancy
Arterial dysplasia
Arterial tortuosity
Arteriovenous Malformation
Arteritis, Giant Cell
Arteritis, Takayasu
Arthritis short stature deafness
Arthritis, Infectious
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
Arthritis, Psoriatic
Arthrogryposis due to muscular dystrophy
Arthrogryposis ectodermal dysplasia other anomalies
Arthrogryposis epileptic seizures migrational brain disorder
Arthrogryposis IUGR thoracic dystrophy
Arthrogryposis like disorder
Arthrogryposis like hand anomaly sensorineural
Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita CNS calcification
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita distal
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita neurogenic type
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita pulmonary hypoplasia
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita whistling face
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal type 1
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal type 2
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal, x-linked
Arthrogryposis ophthalmoplegia retinopathy
Arthrogryposis renal dysfunction cholestasis syndrome
Arthrogryposis spinal muscular atrophy
Arylsulfatase A deficiency
Ascher's Syndrome
Aseptic meningitis
Asherman's Syndrome
Asperger's Syndrome
Asphyxia neonatorum
Astrocytoma, Malignant
Asymmetric septal hypertrophy
Ataxia Telangiectasia
Ataxia telangiectasia variant V1
Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency
Ataxia, Friedreich's
Ataxia, Hereditary, Autosomal Dominant
Ataxia, Marie's
Atelosteogenesis, type II
Athabaskan brain stem dysgenesis
Atopic Dermatitis
Atresia of small intestine
Atrial myxoma, familial
Atrial Septal Defects
Atrioventricular fistula
Atrioventricular Septal Defect
Atrophoderma of Pierini and Pasini
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attenuated FAP
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Atypical lipodystrophy
Atypical Mole Syndrome
Auditory Perceptual Disorder
Aughton syndrome
Ausems Wittebol Post Hennekam syndrome
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Autoimmune hepatitis
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type II
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Autonomic dysfunction
Autonomic nervous system diseases
Axial mesodermal dysplasia spectrum
Axial osteomalacia
Axial osteosclerosis
Ayazi syndrome




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3 Steps to Identify Supplements that Lack Scientific Evidence for their Reported Benefits
This article shows you a simple but reliable method to identify supplements that do not have scientific support for their alleged benefits.

Step 1: Go to

which is a National Library of Medicine (United States) web site where you can search for articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Why check PubMed? Because the National Library of Medicine carefully selects only high-quality journals that offer value to medical scientists around the world. Selection criteria are detailed on this web page:

Step 2: Once on the PubMed web site, search for the generic (scientific) name of the supplement in question. Supplement manufacturers must list the scientific name for their supplement's ingredients on the label and in advertisements. Supplements often contain many ingredients but usually only a few provide the purported benefits. Those are the ingredients you want to evaluate--they are often the same ones the manufacturer highlights in advertisements.

Step 3: This is the step some supplement companies don't want you to know. Before you click on the "Search" button at, limit your search to studies that utilize the right research methodology with the right population.

The right research methodology is a randomized controlled trial (the double-blind, placebo control group design fits under this category) and the right population is human beings.

Specifying human subjects is important because you want to know if the ingredients in a supplement have been shown to produce the advertised benefits in real live human beings--not just in rats pressing levers for food pellets or in a "case study" with one person.

This is not to say that basic science research, which is often conducted initially with animals, is unimportant. On the contrary, such research usually serves as a crucial building block for subsequent clinical research with humans. But basic science research does not provide scientific evidence for a supplement's beneficial health effects on human beings. Only research with human subjects, using randomized controlled trials, can offer such evidence.

On the search page, click on the "Limits" tab located under the "Search" box. You will see a number of drop-down menus. First click on the Publication Type menu and then select Randomized Controlled Trial. Next click on the drop-down menu labeled, Humans or Animals and click on Humans.

An Example

Morinda citrifolia is the scientific name for a popular ingredient in a nutritional supplement. First search on PubMed for Morinda citrifolia, without placing Limits on your search.

How many results did you receive?

The count was 69 at the time I wrote this article. Looks impressive, huh?

But now search for Morinda citrifolia after first placing Limits on the search as described above, so that you receive only those studies which provide more definitive scientific evidence for the positive effects of Morinda citrifolia.

How many journal articles did you find searching with the specified limits? I found 1.

Thus, out of 69 articles found on, only one provides some evidence for Morinda citrifolia's beneficial effects. In addition, those results were obtained with a very specific patient population. Thus, in order to conclude that scientific evidence exists for Morinda citrifolia's efficacy, scientists would need to conduct additional randomized controlled trials with diverse patient populations.


The simple research method described in this article will help you determine if a given supplement possesses sufficient scientific evidence for its purported benefits.

About The Author

Mark Worthen is a Phi Betta Kappa graduate of the University of Maryland's Honors Psychology program. He was a Clinical Fellow, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and earned his Doctor of Psychology degree from Baylor University in 1990. Communicate with Dr. Worthen on the Contact page of

Copyright Mark Worthen, Psy.D. -




Arnold-Chiari malformation, sometimes referred to as 'Chiari malformation' or ACM, is a congenital anomaly of the brain in which the cerebellar tonsils are elongated and pushed down through the opening of the base of the skull (see foramen magnum), blocking the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The brainstem, cranial nerves and the lower portion of the cerebellum may be stretched or compressed. Therefore, any of the functions controlled by these areas may be affected. The blockage of CSF flow may also cause a syrinx to form (syringomyelia).

In infants, the most common symptoms are stridor and swallowing difficulties. In older children, upper limb weakness and breathing difficulties may occur. Patients may experience no symptoms or remain asymptomatic until early adulthood, at which point they will often experience severe headaches and neck pain. Fatigue, dizziness, vertigo, neuropathic pain, visual disturbances, difficulty swallowing, ringing in the ears, impaired fine motor skills, muscle weakness, and palpitations are other common symptoms. Because of the complex combination of symptoms and the lack of experience with ACM1 had by many, even outstanding neurologists and neurosurgeons, many patients are frequently misdiagnosed.

Some patients may go an entire lifetime without having noticeable symptoms. Or, symptoms can be minimal, then turn severe suddenly due to head trauma which alters the condition of the spine, brain, or cerebellar tonsils and begins to cause more difficulties. Once these "onset of symptoms" occurs, the most frequent treatment is decompression surgery, in which a neurosurgeon seeks to open the base of the skull and through various methods unrestrict CSF flow to the spine.

Arnold-Chiari Malformation II occurs in almost all children born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus, but ACM I is typically seen in children and adults without spina bifida. The scale of severity is rates I - IV, with IV being the most severe.


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