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5 Oxoprolinuria
Aagenaes syndrome
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Aarskog Syndrome
Aase Smith syndrome
Aase Syndrome
ABCD syndrome
Abdallat Davis Farage syndrome
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Abdominal cystic lymphangioma
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Abdominal musculature absent microphthalmia joint laxity
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Aberrant subclavian artery
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Absence of Gluteal muscle
Absence of tibia with polydactyly
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Absent T lymphocytes
Acalvaria
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Accessory deep peroneal nerve
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Achard syndrome
Achard Thiers Syndrome
Achard-Thiers syndrome
Acheiropodia
Achondrogenesis
Achondrogenesis Kozlowski type
Achondrogenesis type 1A
Achondrogenesis type 1B
Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia Swiss type agammaglobulinemia
Achondroplastic dwarfism
Achromatopsia
Achromatopsia incomplete, X-linked
Acid maltase deficiency
Acidemia, Isovaleric
Acidemia, Methylmalonic
Acidemia, Propionic
Acitretine antenatal infection
Ackerman syndrome
Acne
Acne Rosacea
Acoustic Neuroma
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Acquired syphilis
Acral dysostosis dyserythropoiesis
Acral renal mandibular syndrome
Acro coxo mesomelic dysplasia
Acro fronto facio nasal dysostosis
Acrocallosal Syndrome, Schinzel Type
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Acrocephalosyndactyly Jackson Weiss type
Acrocephaly pulmonary stenosis mental retardation
Acrodermatitis
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
Acrodysostosis
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Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa
Acromegaloid changes cutis verticis gyrata corneal
Acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome
Acromegaloid hypertrichosis syndrome
Acromegaly
Acromesomelic Dysplasia
Acromesomelic dysplasia Brahimi Bacha type
Acromesomelic dysplasia Campailla Martinelli type
Acromesomelic dysplasia Hunter Thompson type
Acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type
Acromicric Dysplasia
Acroosteolysis dominant type
Acroosteolysis neurogenic
Acroosteolysis osteoporosis skull and mandible changes
Acropectoral syndrome
Acropectorenal field defect
Acropectorovertebral dysplasia
Acrophobia
Acropigmentation of Dohi
Acrorenal syndrome recessive
Acrorenoocular syndrome
Acrospiroma
ACTH Deficiency
ACTH resistance
Actinomycetales infection
Actinomycosis
Activated protein C resistance
Acutane embryopathy
Acute articular rheumatism
Acute erythroblastic leukemia
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Acute idiopathic polyneuritis
Acute intermittent porphyria
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia
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Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
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Acute mountain sickness
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Acute myeloid leukemia, secondary
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia (generic term)
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Acute renal failure
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute tubular necrosis
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of
Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
Adactylia unilateral dominant
Adam complex familial
Adams Nance syndrome
Adams Oliver Syndrome
Addison's Disease
Adducted thumb club foot syndrome
Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
Adducted thumbs Dundar type
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
Adenocarcinoid tumor
Adenocarcinoma of lung
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Adenoma
Adenoma of the adrenal gland
Adenomelablastoma
Adenomyosis
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency
Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency, anemia due to
Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
Adie Syndrome
Adiposis dolorosa aka Dercum's disease
Adolescent benign focal crisis
Adrenal adenoma, familial
Adrenal cancer
Adrenal disorder
Adrenal gland hyperfunction
Adrenal gland hypofunction
Adrenal hyperplasia
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital (General)
Adrenal hypertension
Adrenal hypoplasia
Adrenal hypoplasia congenital, X-linked
Adrenal incidentaloma
Adrenal insufficiency
Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis
Adrenal medulla neoplasm
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Adrenogenital syndrome
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Adrenoleukodystrophy, autosomal, neonatal form
Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linked
Adrenomyodystrophy
Adult onset Still's disease
Adult spinal muscular atrophy
Adult syndrome
Aerophobia
Afibrinogenemia, Congenital
Agammaglobulinemias, Primary
Aganglionosis, total intestinal
Ageing
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
Aggressive fibromatosis
Agnathia holoprosencephaly situs inversus
Agnosia, Primary Visual
Agoraphobia
Agranulocytosis, Acquired
Agrizoophobia
Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria
Agyria-pachygyria type 1
Agyrophobia
Ahumada-Del Castillo Syndrome
Aicardi Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
Aichmophobia
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
AIDS Dementia Complex
AIDS Dysmorphic Syndrome
Ainhum
Akaba Hayasaka syndrome
Akesson syndrome
Aksu Stckhausen syndrome
Al Awadi Teebi Farag syndrome
Al Frayh Facharzt Haque syndrome
Al Gazali Al Talabani syndrome
Al Gazali Aziz Salem syndrome
Al Gazali Donnai Mueller syndrome
Al Gazali Hirschsprung syndrome
Al Gazali Khidr Prem Chandran syndrome
Al Gazali Sabrinathan Nair syndrome
Alagille Syndrome
Alagille-Watson syndrome (AWS)
Alar nasal cartilages coloboma of telecanthus
Albers-Schonberg disease
Albinism
Albinism deafness syndrome
Albinism immunodeficiency
Albinism ocular late onset sensorineural deafness
Albinism oculocutaneous, Hermansky-Pudlak type
Albinism, minimal pigment type
Albinism, ocular
Albinism, yellow mutant type
Albinoidism
Albrecht Schneider Belmont syndrome
Albright like syndrome
Albright Turner Morgani syndrome
Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy
Albright's syndrome
Albuminurophobia
Alcaptonuria
Alcohol antenatal infection
Alcohol fetopathy
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis
Aldolase A deficiency
Aldred syndrome
Alektorophobia
Aleukemic leukemia cutis
Alexander Disease
Alien hand syndrome
Alkaptonuria
Allain Babin Demarquez syndrome
Allan Herndon Syndrome
Allanson Pantzar McLeod syndrome
Allergic angiitis
Allergic autoimmune thyroiditis
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
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Alliumphobia
Allodoxaphobia
Aloi Tomasini Isaia syndrome
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Alopecia immunodeficiency
Alopecia macular degeneration growth retardation
Alopecia mental retardation hypogonadism
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Alopecia totalis
Alopecia universalis
Alopecia universalis onychodystrophy vitiligo
Alopecia, epilepsy, pyorrhea, mental subnormality
Alpers Disease
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
Alpha-2 deficient collagen disease
Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency
Alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency
Alpha-Mannosidosis
Alpha-sarcoglycanopathy
Alpha-thalassemia
Alpha-thalassemia-abnormal morphogenesis
Alport Syndrome
Alport syndrome macrothrombocytopenia
Alport syndrome, dominant type
Alport syndrome, recessive type
Alstrom Syndrome
Alternating hemiplegia
Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood
Aluminium lung
Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia
Alveolar echinococcosis
Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic
Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome
Alzheimer disease, familial
Alzheimer's Disease
Amathophobia
Amaurosis
Amaurosis congenita of Leber
Amaurosis congenita of Leber, type 1
Amaurosis congenita of Leber, type 2
Amaurosis hypertrichosis
Amaxophobia
Amblyopia
Ambral syndrome
Ambras syndrome
Ambulophobia
Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
Amelia cleft lip palate hydrocephalus iris coloboma
Amelia facial dysmorphism
Amelia X linked
Ameloblastoma
Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Amelogenesis Imperfecta hypomaturation type
Amelogenesis imperfecta local hypoplastic form
Amelogenesis imperfecta nephrocalcinosis
Ameloonychohypohidrotic syndrome
Amenorrhea, Primary
Amenorrhea-Galactorrhea Syndrome
American trypanosomiasis
Aminoacidopathies
Aminoaciduria
Aminopterin antenatal infection
Aminopterin like syndrome without aminopterin
Amniotic Bands
Amoebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica
Amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae
Amoebiasis or Amebiasis
Ampola syndrome
Amychophobia
Amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency
Amyloid angiopathy
Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial
Amyloid polyneuropathy, transthyretin related
Amyloidosis
Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva mental retardation
Amyloidosis, Familial
Amylopectinosis
Amyoplasia
Amyoplasia mandibulofacial dysostosis
Amyotonia congenita
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Anablephobia
Anaphylaxis
Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Andersen Disease (GSD IV)
Andre syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Partial
Anemia
Anemia sideroblastic spinocerebellar ataxia
Anemia, Blackfan Diamond
Anemia, Fanconi's
Anemia, Hemolytic, Acquired Autoimmune
Anemia, Hemolytic, Cold Antibody
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Anemia, Hypoplastic, Congenital
Anemia, Megaloblastic
Anemia, Pernicious
Anemias, Sideroblastic
Anemophobia
Anencephaly
Anencephaly spina bifida X linked
Aneurysm
Aneurysm
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva
Aneurysm, intracranial berry
Angel shaped phalangoepiphyseal dysplasia
Angelman Syndrome
Angioedema, Hereditary
Angiofollicular ganglionic hyperplasia
Angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia
Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia
Angiokeratoma mental retardation coarse face
Angiolipoma
Angioma hereditary neurocutaneous
Angiomatosis encephalotrigeminal
Angiomatosis leptomeningeal capillary - venous
Angiomatosis systemic cystic Seip syndrome
Angiomyomatous Hamartoma
Angioneurotic edema hereditary due to C1 esterase deficiency
Angiosarcoma of the liver
Angiosarcoma of the scalp
Angiostrongyliasis
Angiotensin renin aldosterone hypertension
Anguillulosis
Aniridia
Aniridia absent patella
Aniridia ataxia renal agenesis psychomotor retardation
Aniridia Cerebellar Ataxia Mental Deficiency
Aniridia mental retardation syndrome
Aniridia ptosis mental retardation obesity familial
Aniridia renal agenesis psychomotor retardation
Aniridia type 2
Aniridia, sporadic
Anisakiasis
Ankle defects short stature
Ankyloblepharon ectodermal defects cleft lip palate
Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum cleft palate
Ankyloblepharon filiforme imperforate anus
Ankyloglossia heterochromia clasped thumbs
Ankylosing spondylarthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis with tylosis
Ankylosis of teeth
Ankylostomiasis
Annular constricting bands
Annular pancreas
Annuloaortic ectasia
Anodontia
Anonychia ectrodactyly
Anonychia microcephaly
Anonychia onychodystrophy
Anonychia onychodystrophy brachydactyly type B
Anophthalia pulmonary hypoplasia
Anophthalmia cleft lip palate hypothalamic disorder
Anophthalmia cleft palate micrognathia
Anophthalmia esophageal atresia cryptorchidism
Anophthalmia megalocornea cardiopathy skeletal anomalies
Anophthalmia microcephaly hypogonadism
Anophthalmia plus syndrome
Anophthalmia short stature obesity
Anophthalmia Waardenburg syndrome
Anophthalmos with limb anomalies
Anophthalmos, clinical
Anorchia
Anorchidism
Anorectal anomalies
Ano-rectal atresia
Anorexia Nervosa
Anosmia
Anotia
Anotia facial palsy cardiac defect
Ansell Bywaters Elderking syndrome
Anterior horn disease
Anterior pituitary insufficiency, familial
Anthophobia
Anthrax
Anti-factor VIII autoimmunization
Antigen-peptide-transporter 2 deficiency
Anti-HLA hyperimmunization
Antihypertensive drugs antenatal infection
Antinolo Nieto Borrego syndrome
Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Anti-plasmin deficiency, congenital
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Antisynthetase syndrome
Antithrombin deficiency, congenital
Antithrombin III Deficiency
Antley Bixler Syndrome
Antlophobia
Anton's syndrome
Aorta-pulmonary artery fistula
Aortic aneurysm
Aortic arch anomaly peculiar facies mental retardation
Aortic arch interruption
Aortic arches defect
Aortic coarctation
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection lentiginosis
Aortic supravalvular stenosis
Aortic valve stenosis
Aortic valves stenosis of the child
Aortic window
APECED Syndrome
Apert like polydactyly syndrome
Apert Syndrome
Aphalangia hemivertebrae
Aphalangia syndactyly microcephaly
Aphthous stomatitis
Apiphobia
Aplasia cutis autosomal recessive
Aplasia Cutis Congenita
Aplasia cutis congenita dominant
Aplasia cutis congenita epibulbar dermoids
Aplasia cutis congenita intestinal lymphangiectasia
Aplasia cutis congenita of limbs recessive
Aplasia cutis congenita recessive
Aplasia cutis myopia
Aplasia/hypoplasia of pelvis, femur, fibula, and ulna with abnormal digits and nails
Aplastic anemia
Apnea, Infantile
Apnea, Sleep
Apo A-I deficiency
Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
Appendicitis
Apraxia
Apraxia manual
Apraxia, Ideomotor
Apraxia, ocular motor, Cogan type
Apudoma
Aqueductal stenosis, X linked
Arachindonic acid, absence of
Arachnodactyly ataxia cataract aminoaciduria mental retardation
Arachnodactyly mental retardation dysmorphism
Arachnoid Cysts
 Arachnoiditis
Arakawa'sa syndrome II
Arbovirosis
Arc syndrome
AREDYLD
Aredyld syndrome
Arginase Deficiency
Arginemia
Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency
Argininosuccinic Aciduria
Argyria
Arhinia choanal atresia microphthalmia
Arnold Stckler Bourne syndrome
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
Arnold-Chiari syndrome
Aromatase deficiency
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
Arrhinia
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Arroyo Garcia Cimadevilla syndrome
Arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial
Arterial calcification of infancy
Arterial dysplasia
Arterial tortuosity
Arteriovenous Malformation
Arteritis
Arteritis, Giant Cell
Arteritis, Takayasu
Arthritis
Arthritis short stature deafness
Arthritis, Infectious
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
Arthritis, Psoriatic
Arthrogryposis
Arthrogryposis due to muscular dystrophy
Arthrogryposis ectodermal dysplasia other anomalies
Arthrogryposis epileptic seizures migrational brain disorder
Arthrogryposis IUGR thoracic dystrophy
Arthrogryposis like disorder
Arthrogryposis like hand anomaly sensorineural
Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita CNS calcification
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita distal
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita neurogenic type
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita pulmonary hypoplasia
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita whistling face
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal type 1
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal type 2
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal, x-linked
Arthrogryposis ophthalmoplegia retinopathy
Arthrogryposis renal dysfunction cholestasis syndrome
Arthrogryposis spinal muscular atrophy
Arylsulfatase A deficiency
Asbestosis
Ascariasis
Ascher's Syndrome
Aseptic meningitis
Asherman's Syndrome
Aspartylglycosaminuria
Asperger's Syndrome
Aspergillosis
Asphyxia neonatorum
Asthenia
Asthenia
Asthenophobia
Asthma
Astrocytoma
Astrocytoma, Malignant
Asymmetric septal hypertrophy
Ataxia Telangiectasia
Ataxia telangiectasia variant V1
Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency
Ataxia, Friedreich's
Ataxia, Hereditary, Autosomal Dominant
Ataxia, Marie's
Ataxiophobia
Ataxophobia
Atelectasis
Atelosteogenesis, type II
Athabaskan brain stem dysgenesis
Atherosclerosis
Athetosis
Atopic Dermatitis
Atresia of small intestine
Atrial myxoma, familial
Atrial Septal Defects
Atrioventricular fistula
Atrioventricular Septal Defect
Atrophoderma of Pierini and Pasini
Atrophy
ATR-X
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attenuated FAP
Atychiphobia
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Atypical lipodystrophy
Atypical Mole Syndrome
Auditory Perceptual Disorder
Aughton syndrome
Ausems Wittebol Post Hennekam syndrome
Autism
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Autoimmune hepatitis
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type II
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Automysophobia
Autonomic dysfunction
Autonomic nervous system diseases
Axial mesodermal dysplasia spectrum
Axial osteomalacia
Axial osteosclerosis
Ayazi syndrome

 

 

 

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3 Steps to Identify Supplements that Lack Scientific Evidence for their Reported Benefits
This article shows you a simple but reliable method to identify supplements that do not have scientific support for their alleged benefits.

Step 1: Go to


http://www.pubmed.org


which is a National Library of Medicine (United States) web site where you can search for articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Why check PubMed? Because the National Library of Medicine carefully selects only high-quality journals that offer value to medical scientists around the world. Selection criteria are detailed on this web page:


http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/jsel.html


Step 2: Once on the PubMed web site, search for the generic (scientific) name of the supplement in question. Supplement manufacturers must list the scientific name for their supplement's ingredients on the label and in advertisements. Supplements often contain many ingredients but usually only a few provide the purported benefits. Those are the ingredients you want to evaluate--they are often the same ones the manufacturer highlights in advertisements.


Step 3: This is the step some supplement companies don't want you to know. Before you click on the "Search" button at PubMed.org, limit your search to studies that utilize the right research methodology with the right population.


The right research methodology is a randomized controlled trial (the double-blind, placebo control group design fits under this category) and the right population is human beings.


Specifying human subjects is important because you want to know if the ingredients in a supplement have been shown to produce the advertised benefits in real live human beings--not just in rats pressing levers for food pellets or in a "case study" with one person.


This is not to say that basic science research, which is often conducted initially with animals, is unimportant. On the contrary, such research usually serves as a crucial building block for subsequent clinical research with humans. But basic science research does not provide scientific evidence for a supplement's beneficial health effects on human beings. Only research with human subjects, using randomized controlled trials, can offer such evidence.


On the PubMed.org search page, click on the "Limits" tab located under the "Search" box. You will see a number of drop-down menus. First click on the Publication Type menu and then select Randomized Controlled Trial. Next click on the drop-down menu labeled, Humans or Animals and click on Humans.


An Example


Morinda citrifolia is the scientific name for a popular ingredient in a nutritional supplement. First search on PubMed for Morinda citrifolia, without placing Limits on your search.


How many results did you receive?


The count was 69 at the time I wrote this article. Looks impressive, huh?


But now search for Morinda citrifolia after first placing Limits on the search as described above, so that you receive only those studies which provide more definitive scientific evidence for the positive effects of Morinda citrifolia.


How many journal articles did you find searching with the specified limits? I found 1.


Thus, out of 69 articles found on PubMed.org, only one provides some evidence for Morinda citrifolia's beneficial effects. In addition, those results were obtained with a very specific patient population. Thus, in order to conclude that scientific evidence exists for Morinda citrifolia's efficacy, scientists would need to conduct additional randomized controlled trials with diverse patient populations.


Conclusion


The simple research method described in this article will help you determine if a given supplement possesses sufficient scientific evidence for its purported benefits.
 

About The Author
 

Mark Worthen is a Phi Betta Kappa graduate of the University of Maryland's Honors Psychology program. He was a Clinical Fellow, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and earned his Doctor of Psychology degree from Baylor University in 1990. Communicate with Dr. Worthen on the Contact page of http://www.Omega-3-Report.com.

Copyright Mark Worthen, Psy.D. - http://www.pubmed.org

 

 

 

Arnold-Chiari malformation, sometimes referred to as 'Chiari malformation' or ACM, is a congenital anomaly of the brain in which the cerebellar tonsils are elongated and pushed down through the opening of the base of the skull (see foramen magnum), blocking the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The brainstem, cranial nerves and the lower portion of the cerebellum may be stretched or compressed. Therefore, any of the functions controlled by these areas may be affected. The blockage of CSF flow may also cause a syrinx to form (syringomyelia).

In infants, the most common symptoms are stridor and swallowing difficulties. In older children, upper limb weakness and breathing difficulties may occur. Patients may experience no symptoms or remain asymptomatic until early adulthood, at which point they will often experience severe headaches and neck pain. Fatigue, dizziness, vertigo, neuropathic pain, visual disturbances, difficulty swallowing, ringing in the ears, impaired fine motor skills, muscle weakness, and palpitations are other common symptoms. Because of the complex combination of symptoms and the lack of experience with ACM1 had by many, even outstanding neurologists and neurosurgeons, many patients are frequently misdiagnosed.

Some patients may go an entire lifetime without having noticeable symptoms. Or, symptoms can be minimal, then turn severe suddenly due to head trauma which alters the condition of the spine, brain, or cerebellar tonsils and begins to cause more difficulties. Once these "onset of symptoms" occurs, the most frequent treatment is decompression surgery, in which a neurosurgeon seeks to open the base of the skull and through various methods unrestrict CSF flow to the spine.

Arnold-Chiari Malformation II occurs in almost all children born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus, but ACM I is typically seen in children and adults without spina bifida. The scale of severity is rates I - IV, with IV being the most severe.

 

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