Baber's syndrome
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Barber Say syndrome
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Behr syndrome
Behrens Baumann Dust syndrome
Bellini Chiumello Rinoldi syndrome
Bell's Palsy
Ben Ari Shuper Mimouni syndrome
Benallegue Lacete syndrome
Bencze syndrome
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Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease
Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
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Book syndrome
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Borjeson Syndrome
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Brachydactyly nystagmus cerebellar ataxia
Brachydactyly preaxial hallux varus
Brachydactyly scoliosis carpal fusion
Brachydactyly small stature face anomalies
Brachydactyly Smorgasbord type
Brachydactyly tibial hypoplasia
Brachydactyly type a1
Brachydactyly type a2
Brachydactyly type a3
Brachydactyly type A5 nail dysplasia
Brachydactyly type a6
Brachydactyly type a7
Brachydactyly type B
Brachydactyly type C
Brachydactyly type e
Brachydactyly types b and e combined
Brachymesomelia renal syndrome
Brachymesophalangy 2 and 5
Brachymesophalangy mesomelic short limbs osseous anomalies
Brachymesophalangy type 2
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Brachymorphism onychodysplasia dysphalangism syndrome
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Braddock Carey syndrome
Braddock Jones Superneau syndrome
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Branchial arch syndrome X linked
Branchio Oculo Facial Syndrome
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Branchiootorenal syndrome
Breast and ovarian cancer
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Bright's disease
Brittle bone disease
Brittle bone syndrome lethal type
Brittle cornea syndrome
Broad beta disease
Bronchiectasis oligospermia
Bronchiolitis obliterans with obstructive pulmonary disease
Bronchiolotis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)
Bronchitis, Chronic
Bronchogenic cyst
Bronchopulmonary amyloidosis
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
Brown Sequard Syndrome
Brown Syndrome
Brown-Sequard syndrome
Bruck syndrome
Brugada syndrome
Brunoni syndrome
Bruton type agammaglobulinemia
Bruyn Scheltens syndrome
Bubonic Plague
Budd Chiari Syndrome
Buerger's Disease
Bulbospinal amyotrophy, X-linked
Bulimia nervosa
Bull Nixon syndrome
Bullous dystrophy macular type
Bullous ichtyosiform erythroderma congenita
Bullous Pemphigoid
Buntinx Lormans Martin syndrome
Burkitt's lymphoma
Burn Goodship syndrome
Burnett Schwartz Berberian syndrome
Burning Mouth Syndrome
Burning mouth syndrome- Type 3
Buschke Ollendorff syndrome
Bustos Simosa Pinto Cisternas syndrome
Buttiens Fryns syndrome
Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency




















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3 Steps to Identify Supplements that Lack Scientific Evidence for their Reported Benefits
This article shows you a simple but reliable method to identify supplements that do not have scientific support for their alleged benefits.

Step 1: Go to

which is a National Library of Medicine (United States) web site where you can search for articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Why check PubMed? Because the National Library of Medicine carefully selects only high-quality journals that offer value to medical scientists around the world. Selection criteria are detailed on this web page:

Step 2: Once on the PubMed web site, search for the generic (scientific) name of the supplement in question. Supplement manufacturers must list the scientific name for their supplement's ingredients on the label and in advertisements. Supplements often contain many ingredients but usually only a few provide the purported benefits. Those are the ingredients you want to evaluate--they are often the same ones the manufacturer highlights in advertisements.

Step 3: This is the step some supplement companies don't want you to know. Before you click on the "Search" button at, limit your search to studies that utilize the right research methodology with the right population.

The right research methodology is a randomized controlled trial (the double-blind, placebo control group design fits under this category) and the right population is human beings.

Specifying human subjects is important because you want to know if the ingredients in a supplement have been shown to produce the advertised benefits in real live human beings--not just in rats pressing levers for food pellets or in a "case study" with one person.

This is not to say that basic science research, which is often conducted initially with animals, is unimportant. On the contrary, such research usually serves as a crucial building block for subsequent clinical research with humans. But basic science research does not provide scientific evidence for a supplement's beneficial health effects on human beings. Only research with human subjects, using randomized controlled trials, can offer such evidence.

On the search page, click on the "Limits" tab located under the "Search" box. You will see a number of drop-down menus. First click on the Publication Type menu and then select Randomized Controlled Trial. Next click on the drop-down menu labeled, Humans or Animals and click on Humans.

An Example

Morinda citrifolia is the scientific name for a popular ingredient in a nutritional supplement. First search on PubMed for Morinda citrifolia, without placing Limits on your search.

How many results did you receive?

The count was 69 at the time I wrote this article. Looks impressive, huh?

But now search for Morinda citrifolia after first placing Limits on the search as described above, so that you receive only those studies which provide more definitive scientific evidence for the positive effects of Morinda citrifolia.

How many journal articles did you find searching with the specified limits? I found 1.

Thus, out of 69 articles found on, only one provides some evidence for Morinda citrifolia's beneficial effects. In addition, those results were obtained with a very specific patient population. Thus, in order to conclude that scientific evidence exists for Morinda citrifolia's efficacy, scientists would need to conduct additional randomized controlled trials with diverse patient populations.


The simple research method described in this article will help you determine if a given supplement possesses sufficient scientific evidence for its purported benefits.

About The Author

Mark Worthen is a Phi Betta Kappa graduate of the University of Maryland's Honors Psychology program. He was a Clinical Fellow, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and earned his Doctor of Psychology degree from Baylor University in 1990. Communicate with Dr. Worthen on the Contact page of

Copyright Mark Worthen, Psy.D. -







Bell's palsy

(facial palsy) is characterised by facial drooping on the affected half, due to malfunction of the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve), which controls the muscles of the face. Named after Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it, Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy (disease involving only one nerve), and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis. The paralysis is of the infranuclear/lower motor neuron type. Bell’s palsy affects about 40,000 people in the United States every year. It affects approximately 1 person in 65 during a lifetime. Until recently, its cause was unknown in most cases, but it has now been related to both Lyme disease and Herpes simplex

Did You Know ?

Well-known persons affected by Bell's palsy include:

Jean Chrétien - Canada's 20th Prime Minister
Alexis Denisof - actor
George Clooney - actor
Ralph Nader - consumer advocate, U.S. presidential candidate
Anthony Perkins - actor
Jim Ross - WWE commentator
Rick Savage - Def Leppard bassist
Jamey Sheridan - actor
Sylvester Stallone - actor/screenwriter
Curtis Strange - golfer/commentator
Wendy Wasserstein - playwright
Victor Wong - actor

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